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Ancient History of Punjab part-2 (foreign invaders) for PPSC




Persian Invasion

➢ Cyrus (558 – 530 B.C)

○ Cyrus the Great was the greatest conqueror of  the Achaemenid Empire
○ first conqueror who led an expedition and entered into India and captured the Gandhara region.

➢ Darius I (522 – 486 B.C.)

○ Darius I, the grandson of Cyrus, conquered the Indus valley in 518 B.C. and annexed the Punjab and Sindh.
○ This region became the 20th province of his empire.
○ It was the most fertile and populous province of the Persian Empire.
○ Darius sent a naval expedition under Skylas to explore the Indus.

Effects of the Persian Invasion

➢ Trade between India and Iran grew.
➢ The Kharosthi script was brought to northwest India by the Persians.
➢ Some inscriptions of Ashoka were written in the Kharosthi script in these parts.
➢ Kharosthi script is derived from the Aramaic script and is written from right to left.

Alexander Invasion


  • Alexander (356 BC – 323 BC) was the son of Philip of Macedonia. He became king in 336 BC.
  • He had annexed the whole of Persia by defeating Persian King Darius III in the Battle of Arbela (330 BC).
  • Alexander invaded India in 326 BC.
  • Battle of Hydaspes:
  • In 326 BC, the Battle of Hydaspes was fought between Alexander the great and Porus along the banks of Hydaspes river( Jhelum river) in Punjab.
  • Porus, the King of Paurava, ruled the area between the rivers Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab). 
  • Though, Porus was defeated, Alexander was impressed by Porus’s might so asked Porus to rule his dynasty under his name.

➢ In northwest India, Alexander left four of his generals in charge      of four regions, one of them being Seleucus I Nicator.
➢ Generally, it is agreed that Seleucus was defeated in this war an    had to cede 4 important territories to Chandragupta Maurya.
➢ Eudamas was the last General of Alexander in India.

Effects of Alexander’s invasion

➢ Alexander’s invasion augmented political unification in northern India under the Mauryas.
➢ After the invasion, there was direct contact between India and Greece.


Muslim Invasions

Muhammad Bin Qasim

➢ Al-Hajjaj, the Governor of Iraq sent Muhammad -bin-Qasim to India
➢ He Conquered Sind with the permission of Caliph Walid
➢ Battle of Rewar:
➢ Fought between Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Dahir the ruler of Sind
➢ Dahir was defeated. Sind and Multan was captured.
➢ Muhammad-bin-Qasim called Multan as ‘The City of Gold’
➢ Sind and Multan were divided into number of Iqtas or districts by Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Arab military officers headed the Iqtas.

Mahmud of Ghazni

➢ He was the first Turkish to invade India in (1000 AD)
➢ He led 17 expeditions to India.
➢ The initial raids were directed against the
Hindusahi rulers who at the time held Peshawar
and the Punjab.
➢ Important expeditions: 

2nd Expedition , 1002 AD:
○ against King of Hindushahi Dynasty - Jayapala
○ First Battle of Waihind took place between them.
○ Jayapala was defeated
6th expedtion, 1008 AD :
Against Anandpala , son of Jayapala
Ghazni defeated Anandpala in “Second Battle of Waihind”
16th Expedition, in 1025 A.D: Mahmud’s significant invasion in Hindustan was against the Somnath temple



Muhammad of Ghori
  • He was 2nd Turkish and 3rd Muslim invader.
  • He first invaded India in 1176 A.D. 
  • First Battle of Tarain (1191 A.D.) : 
  • He seized the fortress of Bhatinda in 1189 A.D. and then progressed into the kingdom of Prithviraj Chauhan.
  • Muhammad of Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj in the first Battle of Tarain in 1191 A.D.
  • ➢ Second Battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.):
        ○ In the second battle of Train, the joined forces of theRajput             rulers under Prithviraj were defeated by Muhammad of                     Ghori.
○ Prithviraj was held as a prisoner and later put to death.
○ The Turkish rule began for the first time in Indian history
○ Qutb-ud-din Aibak was appointed as the commander by Muhammad of Ghori .


DOWNLOAD PDF : Ancient History of Punjab-2 .pdf

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