Current Affairs | Latest Jobs | Goverment Jobs | Sarkari Naukri | Edusquad

Edusquad is an education platform that provides high quality educational videos and study material for various exams like UPSC, PPSC, SSC etc.

Ancient History of Punjab

Indus Valley Civilization
(2500 B.C-1750 B.C)

➢ John Marshall was the first to use the term-”Indus Valley Civilization”.
➢ Other names :
○ Harappan Civilization as Harappa was first site discovered
○ Bronze Age Civilization as Bronze was the most prominent metal used
➢ Harappa was discovered by excavator “Dayaram Sahni” in 1921.
➢ 2nd site discovered was Mohenjodaro, by “RD Bannerjee” in 1922.
➢ An important characteristic of the Indus Civilization was its urban
➢ Copper, bronze, silver, gold present but iron was not known.
➢ Raw materials were imported.
➢ Contemporary civilizations:
○ Egyptian Civilization: Along river “Nile”
○ Mesopotamian Civilization: Along river Tigris and Euphrates
○ Chinese Civilization: Along river Huang Ho
➢ Earliest people to produce cotton.

IVC Sites in Punjab

➢ Bara, Dt Rupnagar
○ 6 km from Ropar
○ Findings :
■ Pottery ;
■ bones of indian elephant, domesticated humped cattle of
India , buffalo, domesticated goat, domestic sheep, spotted deer and

➢ Kotla Nihang Khan , Dt Rupnagar
○ Discovered first in 1929 by Vats and again in 1955 by Y.D. Sharma on behalf of the ASI.

➢ Rupnagar, Dt Rupnagar
○ Excavated by YD Sharma in 1952-53.
○ Ropar has the distinction of being the site where the remains of the Harappa civilization were excavated for the first time in post-partition India.
○ Findings :
■ beads and bangles
■ Weights
■ Seal made of steatite
■ A cemetery

➢ Sunet, Ludhiana district
○ Inhabited over an ancient mound
○ Findings :
■ seals
■ Coins
■ Coin moulds
■ Human and animal figurines

➢ Sanghol, Fatehgarh Sahib district
○ Findings :
■ Large no. of terracotta figurines
■ Pottery
■ Copper objects

Vedic Era
(1500 B.C-600 B.C)

➢ The Vedic Age started with the coming of the Aryans or Indo-Aryans.
➢ Some say they originated from the area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia (Max Muller), while others think they originated from the Russian Steppes.
➢ Bal Gangadhar Tilak was of the opinion that the Aryans came from the arctic region (book- The Arctic Home in the Vedas)
➢ The four Vedas are: Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. 

➢ Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 BC – 1000 BC)
○ Rig Veda was composed during the Early Vedic Age.
○ Rig Veda – this is the oldest religious text in the world. It contains 1028 hymns and is classified into 10 mandalas.
○ The women held a high position in the Aryan society.
○ There was no child marriage in the Rig-Veda society.
○ There was no caste system and Social distinctions existed but were not rigid and hereditary.

➢ Later Vedic Period

○ Yajur Veda – this deals with the ways to perform rituals.
○ Sama Veda – deals with music. Indian music is said to be originated from Sama Veda.
○ Atharva Veda – contains spells and magical formula.
○ The Varna system : Brahmanas (priests), Kshatriyas (rulers), Vaishyas (agriculturists, traders and artisans), and Shudras (servers of the upper three classes).
○ This became less based on occupation and more hereditary.

Punjab during Vedic period

Punjab in ancient times was known as the Sapt-Sindhava,
or land of the seven rivers.
➢ Satluj - Satlutri
➢ Beas - Vipash
➢ Ravi - Parushani
➢ Chenab - Asikni
➢ Jhelum - Vitasta
➢ Indus - Sindhu
➢ Saraswati - Sarusti

➢ It is believed that mother of Lard Rama (the great hero of Ramayana- written during Aryan period) belonged to Punjab.
➢ Guru Gobind Singh ji in Dasam Granth has connected Ghuram in Patiala district as the birth place of Mata Kaushalaya- mother of
Lord Rama.

DOWNLOD PDF : Ancient History of Punjab -1.pdf