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Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
➢ Founder of the Sikh Empire
➢ Birth : 13 November 1780 at Gujranwala, Sukerchakia Misl (modern-day Pakistan)
➢ Birth name: Buddh Singh
➢ Also known as ‘Sher-i-Punjab’
➢ Parents :
○ Mahan Singh Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur.
○ Mahan Singh was the chief of the Sukerchakia misl estates.

➢ Ranjit Singh contracted smallpox as an infant, which resulted in the loss of sight in his left eye.
➢ He was not educated but was trained in martial arts, horse riding and firearms

➢ At age 12, his father died. He then inherited his father's Sukerchakia misl estates
➢ At the age of 13, first attempt on his life was made by Hashmat Khan.
➢ 1796 : He was married to Mehtab Kaur, daughter of Gurbaksh Singh Kanhaiya and his wife Sada Kaur.
➢ At age 18, his mother died and hereon he was helped by his mother-in-law Sada Kaur.
➢ He expanded his empire by annexing states around him
➢ Lahore served as his capital from 1799
➢ 12 April 1801: Proclaimed himself ‘Maharaja of Punjab’

Treaty of Amritsar (1809)

➢ Lord Minto concluded a treaty with Ranjit Singh at Amritsar in 1809 through Metcalf in order to check the Sikh advance beyond Sutlej.
➢ Terms
○ Agreed to maintain friendly relations
○ Ranjit agreed not to keep more troops on the left bank of Satluj.
➢ It checked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s ambition in east

Tripartite Treaty 
➢ A tripartite treaty was signed between Ranjit Singh, Shah Shuja and Lord Auckland in June 1838.
➢ Terms :
○ Shah Shuja will be reinstated on the Throne of Kabul
○ Sikh armies will provide army to Shah Shuja
○ Shah Shuja will determine the Foreign Policy with the advice of the British.
○ Shah Shuja gave up claims on Sind.
➢ It checked Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s ambition in west

Other Important Facts

➢ Secular character as King
○ Golden plates cover the walls of Harmandir Sahib were donated by him and Rani Sada Kaur
○ Donated gold to Vishwanath Temple, Jawalamukhi and Kangra temples
○ Court was full of Hindus, Muslims and French officers

➢ Built
○ Takht Sri Patna Sahib
○ Takht Sri Hazur Sahib

➢ Coins issued
○ Nanakshahi coins

➢ Ministers
○ Foreign Minister : Fakir Aziz-ud-din
○ Finance Minister : Dina Nath
○ Prime Minister : Dhyan Singh

➢ Foreign Officers
○ Jean Baptiste Ventura
○ Jean Francois Allard
➢ Death : 27 June 1839

Download PDF : Maharaja Ranjit Singh.pdf

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