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Soils of Punjab for PPSC and other Punjab exams



Introduction

 Soil : Soil is loose material that lies on top of the land. It is a mixture of many different things including rock, minerals, water and air. Soil also has living things and dead things in it. We call the living and dead things "organic matter".


Soils of Punjab

● Punjab plains lie in Indo-Gangetic drainage system and is formed by deposition of alluvium brought down from Himalayas.
● Soils of Punjab are classified into following types:
○ Flood plains or Bet soils
○ Loamy soils
○ Sandy soils
○ Desert soils
○ Kandi soils
○ Seirozems
○ Forest soils
○ Saline soils

Flood Plain or Bet Soil

● Khadar type soil that consists of new alluvial soil deposits and is often very fertile.
● Colour : pale to yellowish brown
● Organic matter: low and irregular
● pH value : 7.0 - 8.4
● Crops : paddy, wheat, sugarcane and vegetables
● Area covered : along the west bank of river Satluj from Ropar towm to Fazilka town in the south west.

Loamy soils

● Most important, fertile and productive soil group of Punjab
● Texture :Deep and fine grained soils
● pH value : 8.0 to 7.8
● Crops : wheat and paddy crops.
● Area covered :
○ cover nearly 25% area of the state
○ Nawanshahr district, Nakodar tehsil of Jalandhar district, Phagwara and parts of Kapurthala district
○ In Malwa region , these are found in Patiala, Nabha , Sangrur, southern Moga district, some patches in Muktsar and Bathinda
district.

Sandy soils 

● Developed under semi arid & warm to hot climatic conditions with rainfall ranging from 30cm to 50cm.
● Colour : yellowish to grey due to deficiency of organic matter
● poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and potash
● pH Value :7.8 to 8.5
● Crops : Cotton, citrus, oilseeds, wheat and fodder crops
● Area : Bathinda, Mansa, southern parts of Ferozepur and Muktsar districts, larger parts of Sangrur, south -central parts of Patiala district and some patches of Ludhiana district.

Desert Soils

 ● Developed under arid and hot climate and thin cover or bush vegetation with average rainfall upto 30 cm.
● Colour : yellow to light brown
● Dry and deficient in humus
● Poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
● pH Value : 7.5 to 8.5
● Crops : cotton, moth, citrus, wheat, bajra etc.
● Area covered : Abohar tehsil of Fazilka, zira area of Firozpur district, Muktsar, Bathinda and Mansa district and some patches in
Sangrur and Ludhiana district.

Kandi soils

● Texture :

○ sandy, sandy loam, silt loam and clay- silt to gravelly
○ becomes coarser and rougher eastward the Shivaliks hills where
gravel and pebbles predominates
● Crops : less productive and are  suitable from dry farming.
● Area covered : Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur, larger parts of Hoshiarpur, Nawanshahr and Ropar districts.

Forest soils 

● Developed under shrub and deciduous forests, steep slopes and rugged topography, much water erosion and less hot temperature conditions
● Texture : stony, gravelly and sandy
● Colour : reddish brown to olive brown
● Area covered : some blocks of Gurdaspur districts and Shivalik hill zone of Hoshiarpur, Nawanshahr and Ropar districts.

Sierozems

● Soils of semi arid parts of Punjab with an average annual rainfall from 50cm to 70cm, the general air temperature ranges from 24° to 25° C
● Colour : grey due to deficiency in organic matter
● pH Value : 7.8 to 8.5.
● Crops :
○ Produce highest yield of wheat under irrigation.
○ Paddy cultivation has been introduced in these soils

● Area covered : Tarn Taran and Patti tehsils, Mukerian and Tanda tehsils of Hoshiarpur district, Nakodar and Phillaur tehsil of Jalandhar district, Fatehgarh Sahib ,Rajpura and Patiala distirct

Sodic soils

● Presence of high content of soluble salts (more than 0.2 percent)
● Sodic soils have a higher percentage of sodium
 ( more than 15 %) salt
● pH Value: above 8.5 ● Area covered : fazilka, Bathinda, Muktsar, Ferozepur and Faridkot districts

DOWNLOAD the pdf here : Soils of Punjab.pdf