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Culture of Punjab Part-2:Classical Punjabi Literature




Punjabi Literature

➢ Major classification :
○ Classical Punjabi Literature
○ Modern Punjabi Literature

Classical Punjabi Literature

➢ Sheikh Farid (Baba Farid)
➢ Guru Nanak Dev Ji
➢ Guru Arjan Dev Ji
➢ Bhai Gurdas
➢ Shah Hussain
➢ Guru Gobind Singh Ji
➢ Bulleh Shah
➢ Waris Shah


Sheikh Farid (Baba Farid)

(1173-1256)

➢ Fariduddin Ganjshakar ; Ganj-i-Shakar
➢ Born in 1173 at a village called Kothewal, 10 km from Multan to Jamal-ud-din Suleiman and Maryam Bibi (Qarsum Bibi).
➢ He moved to Delhi, where he learned the Islamic doctrine from his master, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
➢ When Quṭbuddīn Bakhtiyār Kākī died in 1235, Farīd became his spiritual successor.
➢ The great Arab traveller Ibn Battuta once visited this Sufi saint.
➢ Fariduddin Ganjshakar's shrine darbār is located in Pakpattan, Punjab, Pakistan.
➢ Baba Farid has his poetry included in the Guru Granth Sahib, which includes 134 hymns composed by Farid.
➢ Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the 5th guru of Sikhism, included these hymns himself in the Adi Granth.


Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(1469-1539)

➢ He was a great poet and his compositions incorporated vocabulary from Sanskrit, Persian and other Indic languages.
➢ He wrote 947 hymns including
○ Japji Sahib,
○ Asa-Di-Var,
○ Bara-Mah,
○ Sidh-Gosht,
○ Onkar (Dakhani)
➢ These were were incorporated in the scripture Guru Granth Sahib by the fifth Guru Arjan Dev ji.


Guru Arjan Dev Ji
(1563-1606)
➢ Guru Arjan Dev Ji compiled “Adi Granth”.
➢ Guru Arjan was a prolific poet and composed 2,218 hymns, or more than a third and the largest collection of hymns in the Guru
Granth Sahib.
➢ Compositions:
○ Adi Granth
○ Sukhmani Sahib
○ Gaudi
○ Barah Akhar
○ Majjh


Bhai Gurdas
(1551-1636)

➢ Bhai Gurdas was an influential Sikh figure, writer, historian and preacher.
➢ Gurdas was born in 1551 at Goindwal, asmall village in the Punjab. He was the only child of Bhai ganaya Das ji and Jivani.
➢ After being orphaned at the age of 12, he was adopted by Guru Amar Das.
➢ Gurdas learned Sanskrit, Braj Bhasha, Persian and Punjabi.
➢ He was the original scribe of the Guru Granth Sahib.
➢ Bhai Gurdas completed the Adi Granth in 1604. It took him nearly 19 years to scribe.
➢ His other works in Punjabi are collectively called "Vaaran Bhai Gurdas"
➢ Writings:
○ 6 Chhands of 8 Verses each in Sanskrit
○ 672 Kabits and 3 Swayyas in Brij Bhasha
○ 40 Vaars containing 912 Pauris in Panjabi


Shah Hussain
(1538-1599)

➢ He was born in Lahore in 1538.
➢ Father : Sheikh Usman
➢ Other name : Madho Lal Hussain
➢ He was a 16th century Punjabi Sufi poet who is regarded as a pioneer of the Kafi form of Punjabi poetry.
➢ He contemporary of Akbar and Jahangir.
➢ He was close friend of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. 
➢ Kafian:
○ Aage Nain Doonghi
○ Aakh Ni Mae Aakh Ni
○ Aap Nu Pachhan Bande
○ Amlan De Upar Hon Nibera
○ Ik Din Tainu Supna Theesan
○ Maen Ni Main Kainu Aakhan
○ Dunian Jeevan Char Dihare


Guru Gobind Singh Ji
(1666-1708)

➢ Collection of Guru Gobind Singh ji’s writings is called “Dasven Patshah Da Granth”.
➢ Also called “Dasam Granth”.
➢ Total Number of verses in Dasam Granth are 17,377.
➢ Guru Ji strongly urged his followers to worship only one God and none other.
➢ Wrote:
○ Jaap Sahib,
○ Chandi di Var,
❏ Tav-Prasad Savaiye,
❏ Zafarnamah,
❏ Bachittar Natak,
❏ Akal Ustat,
❏ Chaupai
❏ Gyan Prabodh
❏ Chaubis Avtar
❏ Khalse di Mahima
❏ Swayyal


Bulleh Shah
(1680-1757)

Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri, popularly known as Bulleh Shah, was a Mughal-era Sufi poet.
➢ Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, now in
Pakistan.
➢ His first spiritual teacher was Shah Inayat Qadiri.
➢ The verse form Bulleh Shah primarily employed is called the Kafi.
➢ Compositions:
○ Makke Gaya Gal Mukdi Nahin
○ Bulleya ki Jaana Main Kon
○ Main Jaana Jogi De Naal
○ Ishq di Naween Naween Bahar
○ Ek Nukte Wich Gal Mukdi Hai


Waris Shah
(1722–1798)

➢ Waris Shah was a Punjabi Sufi poet known for his contribution to Punjabi literature.
➢ Waris Shah is also called “Shakespeare of the Punjab”
➢ Waris Shah was born in Jandiala Sher Khan, Punjab, present-day Pakistan.
➢ His father's name was Gulsher Shah and mother's name was Kamal Banu.
➢ Waris Shah is primarily known as the author of Heer Ranjha.
➢ Many verses of Waris Shah are widely used in Punjab in a moral context, eg: “Naa adataan jaandiyan ne, Bhavein katiye poriyan poriyan ji”

Download pdf here: Culture of Punjab Part-2:Classical Punjabi Literature.pdf

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