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Indus Valley Civilization for UPSC, SSC, PPSC, PCS Part-2

➢ In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Surkotada (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab).
➢ In Pakistan: Harappa (on river Ravi), Mohenjodaro (on Indus River in Sindh), Chanhudaro (in Sindh).

➢ Kalibanga (Rajasthan, India) :
○ "world's earliest attested ploughed field"
○ 'Kali' means black and 'bhangan' means bangle.
○ Excavated by: Discovered by Italian Indologist -Luigi Pio Tessotori.Most extensive work on Kalibangan was done by A Ghosh in 1951-55 and later by BB Lal & B K Thapar in 1961.
○ Year: 1953
○ Findings:
■ beads of steatite, shell, terracotta and copper
■ bangles of copper, shell and terracotta
■ terracotta objects like a toy-cart, wheel and a broken bull;
■ Fire altars

➢ Lothal (Gujarat, India):
○ The meaning of Lothal (a combination of Loth and (s) thal) in Gujarati to be "the mound of the dead"
○ Excavated by: S.R.Rao
○ Year: Discovered in 1954, from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960
○ Findings:
■ world's earliest known dock
■ Port Town
■ Evidence of Rice.
■ Fire Altar.
■ Graveyard.
■ Ivory weight balance.
■ Copper dog.

➢ Dholavira ( Gujarat, India):
○ The Dholavira is the largest Indus Valley Site in independent India.
○ Excavated by: R S Bisht
○ Year: discovered in 1967-1968 by J. P. Joshi; under excavation since 1990
○ Findings:
■ Only site to be divided into three parts.
■ Giant water reservoir.
■ Unique water harnessing system.
■ Dams.
■ Embankments.
■ A stadium.
■ Rock – cut architecture.

➢ Surkotada (Gujarat, India ):
○ Discovered by: JP Joshi
○ Excavation year: 1974
■ Horse remains
■ Elephant bones and wolf bones
■ Stone covered grave
■ beads

➢ Banawali ( Fatehabad district, Haryana, India ):
○ Excavated by: R.S. Bisht
○ Year: 1974
○ Findings:
■ A terracotta plough model
■ beads and bangles of semi-precious stones, terracotta and shell,
■ Weights
■ terracotta animal figurines,
■ inscribed steatite seals and terracotta seals,
■ copper fish-hooks,
■ charred barley grains etc.

➢ Ropar ( Punjab, India):
○ the first Harappan site of Independent India.
○ Excavated by: Y D Sharma.
○ Year: 1953
○ Findings:
■ Buildings made of stone and soil.
■ Dog buried with humans.
■ One inscribed steatite seal with typical Indus pictographs.
■ Oval pit burials.

Salient Features of IVC

➢ Urban Culture:
○ town planning, sanitation, drainage system and broad well-laid roads.
➢ Seals :
○ Engraved with animal figures (e.g. humped bull, elephant and rhinoceros). This suggests that these animals were considered sacred.
○ Image of ‘Peepal’ tree is found depicted on many seals.
➢ Script:
○ Boustrophedon
○ Harappan script is yet to be deciphered.
➢ Crops:
○ Wheat, Barley, Rai, Peas, Dates, Mustard, etc.
○ They were the first to grow cotton and weave it into cloth.
➢ Domesticated animals such as cattle, cat, dogs, elephants, etc.
➢ Metals:
○ such as Gold, Silver, copper, bronze, lead and tin were produced i.e. had knowledge of metals & process of alloying
○ bronze sculpture of dancing girl found in Mohenjodaro.
○ Iron was not known
➢ Worshiped:
○ worshipped male god resembling Lord Shiva of later times and a mother goddess.
○ plants, animals and the forces of nature.
➢ Economy:
○ based upon agriculture as well as trade.
○ there were links from overseas places (Mesopotamia)
○ In various cities of Mesopotamia, the harappan seals have been found which prove these relationships.
○ The description of Meluha ( ancient name of the river Indus) in the Mesopotamian literature refers to India.

Decline of IVC

➢ Sir Mortimer Wheeler’s Theory of Aryan Attack:
○ there is a reference in the Rig-Veda, that Indra destroyed hostile people of Hariyuppa (Harappa)
○ discovery of some skeletons of men, women and children from the lower city of Mohenjo Daro, killed during the so-called last massacre.
➢ Most scholars and archaeologists dismiss the Wheeler’s theory:
○ Rig-Veda never mentions anything about some of the recognizable features of the sites
➢ Natural factors:
○ It is believed that the Indus Valley region experienced several earthquakes.
○ These changed courses of rivers or dried them up (confirmed by modern satellite imagery) - By Lambrick
○ It caused great floods (evident from the quantities of silt layers in the upper levels of Mohenjo Daro indicating heavy floods).

➢ Environment degradation:
○ given by John Marshall.
○ Cutting of forests for agriculture and timber for fuel may have resulted in the barren land and silting.

Download the pdf here : Indus Valley Civilization for UPSC, SSC, PPSC, PCS Part-2