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Salient features of Indian Constitution



The lengthiest Constitution in the world

The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed of all the written constitutions of the world. While
The American Constitution originally consisted of only 7 Articles, the Australian constitution 128 Articles, the Canadian Constitution 147 Articles.
The Indian Constitution originally consisted of 395 articles divided into 22 parts and 9 schedules . Presently ,it consists of a preamble,463 articles divided into 24 parts and 12 schedules.
Parliamentary form of government
The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government. The parliamentary system is based on the principle of cooperation and coordination between the legislative and executive organs of the state.
Combination of rigidity and flexibility
A rigid Constitution is one that requires a special procedure for it's amendment while flexible Constitution is one that can be amended in the same manner as ordinary laws are made. Some provisions of the Constitution can be amended by the parliament by a simple majority, others require a two - third majority of the members f the parliament as well as majority in the state legislatures.
Fundamental Rights
The fundamental rights are meant for promoting the  idea of political democracy. Part 3 of the Indian Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights to all the citizens-
Right to equality (articles 14-18)
Right to freedom (articles 19-22)
Right against exploitation (articles 23-24)
Right to freedom of religion (articles 25-28)
Cultural and educational rights(articles 29-30)
Right to constitutional remedies (article 32)

Directive principles of state policy
The directive principles of State Policy contained in part 4 of the Constitution set out the aims and objectives to be taken by the state in the governance of the country.
Fundamental Duties
Fundamental Duties of the citizens were added by the 42nd constitutional amendment act of 1976. The 86th constitutional amendment act of 2002 added one more fundamental duty. These duties serve as constant reminders to the citizens that they have to observe certain basic norms of democratic conduct.
Federal system with a unitary bias 
Indian Constitution provides for a federation with a strong centre. it is noteworthy that the Constitution has not used the term federation anywhere and has described India as a union of states which implies that the Indian federation is not the result of any agreement among the units and the units cannot secede from it.
Adult suffrage
In India every person, male or female, who has obtained the age of 18 years, is entitled to vote in elections to parliament or State legislatures. Originally this age limit was 21 years but after the 61st amendment act, 1988 it was reduced to 18 years.
An Independent Judiciary
The supreme Court stands at the top of integrated judicial system in the country. Below it, there are high Courts at the state level. This single system of courts enforces both the central laws as well as the State laws.
A Secular State
The term secular was added to the preamble of the Indian Constitution by the 42nd amendment act of 1976. Under a Secular State, there is no state religion and the state is completely detached from religious dogmas. It also implies that citizens are free to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
Single citizenship
The most of federation people have double citizenship, citizenship of the union and citizenship of one of the several states which form the union. Every citizen is the citizen of India and enjoys the same rights of citizenship no matter in which state he resides.
Separation of powers 
Doctrine of separation of powers implies that powers of the three organs of the government
Legislative
Executive
Judiciary ,should be kept separate from each other. The doctrine of separation of power is enshrined in article 50 of the constitution.

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