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The background of Indian Constitution

The background of indian Constitution

The British came to India in 1600 as traders, in the form of East India Company, which had the exclusive right of trading in India under charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I.

In 1765, the company, which till now had purely trading functions obtained the 'diwani’ of Bengal, Bihar, & Orissa. This marked the beginning of the Territorial sovereignty of the company. In the meanwhile, the British crown passed a number of charters and acts to regulate the conduct of the company.

Though the Constitution of India was framed by the constituent assembly, many constitutional experiments introduction by the British government before the making of the present Constitution, form the basis of the constitutional developments in India. Some of these constitutional experiments are given below:

Constitutional experiments before 1858

The British government assumed direct responsibility of indian administration in 1858 but even before that, many constitutional experiments were introduced in India , which were aimed at to control the activities of the company on the one hand and to streamline the Indian administration on the other. The first in the series was the

Regulating act of 1773

It designated the governor of Bengal as the Governor- General of Bengal and created an executive council of 4 members of assist him

It provided for the establishment of a supreme Court at Calcutta (1774) comprising one chief justice and three other judges. 

Pitt’s India act of 1784

Which allowed the court of directors to manage the commercial affairs but created a new body called Board of Control to manage the political affairs. Thus, it established a system of double government.

The charter act of 1793
Empowered to governor- general to override the decisions of councillors.

The charter act of 1813
Ended the Monopoly of the company of trade with India. it also permitted the christian missionaries to operate in india.

The charter act of 1833

It made the Governor- General of Bengal as the Governor- General of India. Lord William bentinck  was the first Governor-General of India.

It ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body, which became a purely administration body. 

It added a member of law to the Governor- General's council. 

The charter act of 1853

It separated for the first time the legislative and executive functions of the Governor - General's council.

It introduced an open competition system of selection and recruitment of civil servants. The covenanted civil service was thus thrown open to the indians also.

It introduced for the first time local representation in the Indian ( central) legislative council.

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