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What is Constitution

A Constitution means a document having a special legal sanctity which sets out  the frame work and principal functions of the government.

It gives idea about the basic structure of the political system under which its  people are to be governed.

It define the power of main organ of the state ,demarcates thier responsibilities and regulates their relationships with each other and with the people.

It  can also be termed as “fundamental law”  of a country which reflects people’s faith and aspirations.

The nature of the Indian Constitution

According to traditional classification followed by the political scientists - In a unitary Constitution the powers of the government are centralised in one government, the central government. The provinces are subordinate to the centre. In a federal Constitution, there is a division of powers between the federal and the state governments and both are independent in their own spheres.

The Indian Constitution possesses all the essential characteristics of a federal Constitution. The Constitution establishes a dual policy,a system of the double government with the central government at one level and the state government at the other. There is a division of powers between the central and the state  governments. Each level of government is supreme in it's own spheres. The Constitution of India is written and is supreme.

Federal principle

According to prof. Wheare federal principles means the method of dividing powers , so that the general and regional governments are each within a sphere co- ordinate and independent in their spheres and not subordinate to one another.

The American Constitution is universally regarded as an example of federal Constitution. It establishes dual form of government. The federal and the state governments. The powers of both the central and state governments are divided. The existence of co-ordinate authorities independent of each other is the gist of the federal principle.

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