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Concept of Development ans Its Relationship with Learning for CTET | PSTET | HTET | REET (PDF)




Concept of Development
  • The term ‘development’ refers to qualitative changes in an individual  ( taking place simultaneously with quantitative changes,) such as change in personality or other mental and emotional aspects.
  • Development does not just involve the biological and physical aspects of growth, but also the cognitive and social aspects associated with development throughout life.
  •  Development takes place in all aspects such as physical, cognitive, language, social, emotional and others. 
  • E. Hurlock said, “Instead it consists of progressive series of changes Towards the goal of maturity.”
  • Child development:  is the field that involves the scientific study of the patterns of growth, change and stability that occur from conception through adolescence
Topical Areas in Child Development
  • Physical Development ( शारीरिक विकास) : examining the ways in which the body’s makeup—the brain, the nervous system, muscles and senses and the need for food, drink and sleep-helps determine behaviour.
  • Cognitive Development ( संज्ञानात्मक विकास ) : Examines intellectual abilities, including learning, memory, problem solving, and intelligence.
  • Personality and Social Development (व्यक्तित्व and सामाजिक विकास) : Examines enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another and how interactions with others and social relationships grow and change over the lifetime.
Difference between growth and development
  • Growth is quantitative (मात्रात्मक)  and development is qualitative ( गुणात्मक ) in nature.
  • Growth refers to physical aspects only; whereas development refers to all aspects  such as physical, cognitive, language, emotional, social etc.
  • Growth is limited to height and weight but development refers to all changes  leading towards maturity.
  •  Growth stops at certain period of life but development continues till death.
Development and Learning
  • Learning means to gain knowledge, understanding and skills. An even broader term learning can be defined as “any permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of a practice or an experience.” 
  • According to Gates, “Learning is modification of behaviour through experience”.
  • The areas of learning and development comprise
  1. Physical Development :  Health and bodily awareness
  2. Knowledge and understanding of the world
  3. Communication, language and literacy
  4. Personal, social and emotional development
  5. Problem solving, reasoning and numeracy (PSRN):: Numbers as labels and for counting, Calculating ,Shape, space and measures 
  6. Creative development
Stages of  Growth and Development

Prenatal Period (before birth):
  • When the child is in the mother’s womb the particular period spent there is known as prenatal period. All important external and internal feelings start to develop at this stage.
Infancy - बचपन  (Birth to 2 years):
  • Babies grow very rapidly in size during their first three years. The acquisition of motor skills like holding things, crawling, walking proceeds from simple to complex.
Childhood stage-   बालपन (2- 12 years)
  • Early Childhood (2 -6 Years)
    • Growth during the early childhood (2-6 years) is not as rapid as it was during infancy but it is a critical period of language development. During this period children improve on skills such as walking, running, balancing and self-dressing.
  •  Later Childhood ( 6-12 years)
    •  children between the age of 6 to 12 years look much taller and thinner. Children exhibit rapid gains in strength and swiftness. They achieve new motor skills and their competence becomes more pronounced in all areas of development.
Adolescent stage: किशोर (12- 18 years)
  • This is the period of rapid physiological growth. There are a number of psychological changes which also take place. Children jump rope, bicycle, ride horses, dance and indulge in all possible games. Cognitively they are more agile and social  relationships become important. But the hallmark of this stage is the search for identity. A number of psychological changes also take place.
Adulthood : वयस्कता (19 - Death)
  • Strength and energy characterize this time of life from the middle twenties when most bodily functions are fully developed, until about the age of 50. Thereafter there is gradual decline in energy level.

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