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Previous Year UPSC Questions - Environment and Ecology

1. Consider the following statements:

1. Biodiversity is normally greater in the lower latitudes as compared to the higher latitudes.
2. Along the mountain gradients, biodiversity is normally greater in the lower altitudes as compared to the higher altitudes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer:
(c) Both 1 and 2

2. Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats, Sri Lanka and lndo Burma regions as hotspots of bio diversity :

1. Species richness 
2. Vegetation density 
3. Endemism 
4. Ethno-botanical importance 
5. Threat perception 
6. Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm arid humid conditions 

Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?

A) 1, 2 and 6 

B) 2, 4 and 6 

C) 1, 3 and 5 

D) 3, 4 and 6 

Correct Answer:
C) 1, 3 and 5 

3. Biodiversity forms the basis for human existence in the following ways: 

1. Soil formation 
2. Prevention of soil erosion 
3. Recycling of waste 
4. Pollination of crops 
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

A) 1, 2 and 3 only 

B) 2, 3 and 4 only

C) 1, and 4 only

D) 1,2,3 and 4 

Correct Answer:
D) 1,2,3 and 4 

4. Which one of the following is not a site for in situ method of conservation of flora?

A) Biosphere Reserve 

B) Botanical Garden 

C) National Park 

D) Wildlife Sanctuary 

Correct Answer:
B) Botanical Garden

5.  Among the following states, which one has the most suitable climatic conditions for the 
cultivation of a large variety of orchids with minimum cost of production, and can develop an export oriented industry in this field?

A) Andhra Pradesh 

B) Arunachal Pradesh 

C) Madhya Pradesh 

D) Uttar Pradesh

Correct Answer:
B) Arunachal Pradesh

6. A sandy and saline area is the natural habitat of an Indian animal species. The animal has no
predators In that area but its existence is threatened due to the destruction of its habitat. Which one of the following could be that animal?

A) Indian Wild buffalo 

B) Indian wild ass 

C) Indian wild boar 

D) Indian gazelle 

Correct Answer:
B) Indian wild ass

7. The 'Red Data Books' published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) contain lists of 

1. Endemic plant and animal species present in the biodiversity hotspots. 
2. Threatened plant and animal species. 
3. Protected sites for conservation of nature and natural resources in various countries. 
Select the correct answer using the codes given below

A) 1 and 3 

B) Only 2 

C) 2 and 3 

D) Only 3 

Correct Answer:
B) Only 2

8.The 2004 Tsunami made people realize that mangroves can serve as a reliable safety hedge against coastal calamities. How do mangroves function as a safety hedge?

(a.) The mangrove swamps separate the human settlements from the sea by a wide zone in which people neither live nor venture out

(b.) The mangroves provide both food and medicines which people are in need of after any natural disaster

(c.) The mangrove trees are tall with dense canopies and serve as art excellent shelter during a cyclone or tsunami

(d.) The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots

Correct Answer:
(d.) The mangrove trees do not get uprooted by storms and tides because of their extensive roots

9. There is a concern, over the increase in harmful algal blooms in the seawaters 
of India. What could be the causative factors for this phenomenon? 

1. Discharge of nutrients from the estuaries 
2. Run-off from the land during the monsoon.
3. Upwelling in the seas 

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

A) Only 1 

B) 1 and 2 

C) 2 and 3

D) 1,2 and 3 

Correct Answer:
D) 1,2 and 3

10. The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following
is the most appropriate reason for this phenomenon?

A) It receive a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth

B) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones 

C) Exotic and invasive species have been introduced riot in this region

D) It has less human interference

Correct Answer:
B) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones

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